Wardah Razzaq, Green Blogger

Many of us have heard about the rising sea levels, melting of ice caps and glaciers, drastic change in weather patterns and significant decline in the population of several species in the news. While we may think these events don’t affect us directly, the truth is that they are all signs of climate change that pose a huge threat to the entire planet. Therefore, just like the rest of the world, there are several serious environmental issues in Pakistan that need to be addressed and dealt with on an urgent basis.

Granted, the federal and provincial governments along with other organizations have introduced several initiatives to solve the environmental problems in Pakistan. However, there is much more that needs to be done if we want our future generations to live in a world that at least has drinkable water, breathable air, tolerable weather and edible produce.

1.      Environmental Protection Laws and Agencies in Pakistan

In 1997, then-government enacted the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act to safeguard, conserve, rehabilitate and improve the environment of Pakistan through sustainable development measures and pollution control, among others. 

The Pakistan Environmental Protection Council, which was first established in 1984, was also reconstituted following the enactment of the 1997 legislation. Its main function is to supervise the implementation of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 

Here are a few more agencies that deal with the ecological problems of Pakistan. 

·         Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency

·         Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (formerly known as ENERCON) 

·         Pakistan Forest Institute

·         National Council for Conservation of Wildlife

·         The Zoological Survey Department of Pakistan

·         Akhtar Hameed Khan National Centre for Rural Development & Municipal Administration

2.      Key Environmental Issues in Pakistan

We basically live in an agricultural country where nearly 60% of the overall population lives in rural areas with little to no access to clean water and proper sanitation facilities. Owing to the growing population, expansion of the economic sector, urbanization, poor waste management and many other factors, the environmental problems in Pakistan are getting worse with each passing. 

These are some of the major environmental concerns in Pakistan that you should know about.

·         Deforestation

·         Air pollution

·         Water pollution

·         Land pollution

·         Global Warming 

Now let us take an in-depth look at these serious environmental issues in Pakistan and discuss possible solutions to tackle this growing threat.

2.1.            Deforestation

Deforestation is one of the major environmental problems in Pakistan

To put it simply, deforestation occurs when humans destroy forests by cutting down trees and not replanting then. This is mostly done to obtain wood and fuel. However, urbanization, growing population and expansion of cities are also leading cause of deforestation. 

Apart from destroying natural beauty, cutting down forests also has a huge impact on our ecosystem as it affects wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, Pakistan has a high deforestation rate, as more and more rural areas are converting into farms and urban centres. Due to lack of resources and poverty, a lot of people also rely on wood from trees to keep them warm during the winter months or build homes. Whatever the reason may be, you can’t argue against deforestation being a huge threat to our environment. (Goddard et al; 2005)

2.1.1.      Solution

The solution for this environmental issue is pretty clear: we need to plant more trees and conserve our forests. Luckily, the government has been doing a lot to raise awareness about tree plantation in Pakistan.

As we all know, Pakistan already has a huge man-made forest in Punjab known as Changa Manga. Other than that, the One Billion Trees initiative undertaken by the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is also a noteworthy achievement in this regard.

Just recently, Prime Minister Imran Khan launched a nationwide tree plantation drive and announced August 18 to be marked as ‘Plant for Pakistan’ day.

Moreover, if we don’t want to lose our lush green forests, we need to reduce our use of paper, as going paperless can also help curb deforestation in Pakistan

2.2.            Air Pollution

The number of diesel vehicles that emit excessive carbon need to be reduced

If you have suffered through the winter smog in Lahore and other big cities, you would agree that Pakistan is going through an air pollution crisis. 

Air pollution can be defined as the presence of toxic solid and liquid particles in the air along with certain gases that are harmful to the environment. This type of pollution is mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuel for transportation and production of electricity. The black smoke that you see coming out of vehicles on the road along and out of factories in the industrial areas are all leading causes of air pollution in Pakistan. (Goddard et al; 2005)

Lack of rainfall and low wind speed have also exacerbated the issue in some parts of the country.

2.2.1.      Solution

One of the most efficient ways to deal with air pollution in Pakistan is to plant more trees. Apart from that, concerned authorities must take actions to reduce the number of diesel vehicles which emit excessive carbon in the air. The high content of lead in petrol is also an important issue that needs immediate attention, as inhaling smoke from vehicles can result in a high concentration of blood lead levels in children and adults.On a personal level, you can help solve this environmental issue in Pakistan by reducing the number of trips you take in your car or, if possible, riding a bicycle instead. People who live in the northern areas of the country can also try and reduce their use of firewood. Similarly, the use of wood stoves must also be reduced. Furthermore, we should also ban the somewhat common practise of burning leaves and garbage along with other materials to help protect the environment in Pakistan.

2.3.            Water Pollution

Dumping waste material in water bodies is the main reason behind water pollution in Pakistan

Water pollution is caused when toxic substances such as chemicals, waste and certain microorganisms contaminate a body of water, rendering it harmful for human use or consumption. Drinking from polluted streams, rivers, lakes and ponds, or using its water to bathe or cook, can be extremely harmful to one’s health. (Goddard et al; 2005)

The reasons behind water pollution could be a poor sewage system, throwing chemical wastage from factories into the ocean and increase in litter, especially plastic. Given that Pakistan is an agricultural country with an arid climate, water pollution is also harming our crops and land. This is also one of the main reasons why a large chunk of population in the country does not have access to clean drinking water. 

To sum it up, water pollution in Pakistan is considered a huge risk to public health. 

2.3.1.      Solution

One of the best ways to counter this environmental problem in Pakistan is to set up proper sewage treatment and management system. The agricultural sector of the country also needs to reduce its use of pesticides and fertilizers, as these contain harmful chemicals that easily find their way to water bodies and lead to pollution.

Steps must also be taken to ban people and companies from disposing of their waste and rubbish into lakes.

2.4.            Land Pollution

Annually, the country generates approximately 48.5 million tons of solid waste with a 2% increase each year. Since we don’t have a proper waste disposal system, most of it is either burned, causing air pollution or buried on vacant land, causing soil erosion. The rest of this waste is just dumped on empty lots, damaging the environment and leading to land pollution.

Urbanization and use of harmful chemicals and pesticides are also some of the major causes of land pollution in Pakistan. 

2.4.1.      Solution

You can minimize land pollution by adopting a zero-waste lifestyle and reducing your use of plastic. In fact, authorities in Pakistan recently proposed a ban on plastic bags to actively fight against plastic pollution. Other ways to help tackle this ecological problem of Pakistan include recycling and reusing things, buying organic products and avoiding using harsh chemicals such as industrial cleaners and bleach solutions.

Since we ourselves are responsible for protecting our environment, here are a few more tips on how you can play your part in keeping Pakistan clean and green. Furthermore, Karachi Cleanliness drive is also a great example of how we must take steps to deal with these environmental issues in Pakistan.

2.5.            Global Warming

We all need to play our part in protecting the environment in Pakistan

Before we discuss global warming in Pakistan, let us first establish that the terms global warming and climate change are not interchangeable. However, it’s a common mistake that most people make.

To further clarify, global warming refers to the long-term warming of the planet due to pollution, whereas climate change is broad phenomena referring to abnormal variations to the Earth’s climate. To put it simply, one can say that global warming is a symptom of climate change. (PR et al; 2002)

Now, unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the biggest victims of global warming in the world. The heatwaves and cold snaps that we have been suffering through for the past several years are all due to the increased global warming. The main reason behind this is the emission of fossil fuel; however, it is not the only culprit.

2.5.1.      Solution

If we want to help protect the ozone layer from depleting at such a quick pace and help reduce the size of our carbon footprint on the Earth, we should consider adopting a sustainable, minimal-waste lifestyle. It will help minimize our impact on the planet’s natural resources as well.


1.        McCarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White KS, et al. (2001) A Report on Working Group II: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers, IPCC: 1-18.

2.        Epstein PR (2002) Is Global Warming Harmful to Health? South American Magazine.

3.        National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (2005) Air Pollution as Climate Forcing. Goddard Space Flight Center.

4.        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Greenhouse_Gas_by_Sector.png