An ecosystem is a natural unit of organic, inorganic matter and various organisms where different organisms form a way of life by interacting with each other and their surrounding organic and inorganic elements.

In the environment, every living thing is dependent on each other. Fauna is also dependent on inert matter. The interaction of energy and matter between lifeless matter with these two types of organisms, plants and animals, in the natural environment is called interaction, and in such an interaction, any such region of the earth is called an ecosystem. So By ecosystem, we can define the interrelationship between all living things and matter in our environment.

An ecosystem is a natural unit of organic, inorganic matter and various organisms where different organisms form a way of life by interacting with each other and their surrounding organic and inorganic elements.

Every creature in the world has to go with the help of each other in this way. The lack of anyone animal or plant in the ecosystem can also be exacerbated. So, no matter how much we worry about mosquitoes today, they have a role to play in the ecosystem. There are also rats. So, we have to move forward in a way that doesn't directly eliminate them so that they can be in this ecosystem, we can; But no one bothers anyone. That should be it.

The ecosystem of a place is formed by the combination of the living community, the inert matter of the environment and the physical environment. In each of these three main elements, there are many types of small elements and the living elements are the most diverse.

That is, there are three main components of an ecosystem.

(A) Inert Material

Inert matter can be divided into two parts.

Organic Matter: Waste material of plants and animals or inert matter which is added to the ecosystem from the carcasses of these organisms is called organic matter these are commonly known as humus. Such as - Urea, dead plants and animals, carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids etc.

Inorganic Matter: Minerals in water, air and soil, that is, substances which did not come from an organism, but were present in the environment before the origin of the organism, are inorganic elements of the ecosystem such as: - Oxygen in the environment, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, amino acids and humic acids, etc. are the basic inorganic elements of the ecosystem.

(B) Physical Materials

 Materials related to the climate, topography and soil of a particular region; these are the physical elements of the ecosystem.

Climate: This includes light, heat, rainfall, humidity, etc.

Geology: This includes the latitudes of certain regions, the direction of mountains and valleys, slopes or steep conditions, etc.

Soil related elements: This includes the soil structure of a particular place, its physical and chemical properties and the details related to it.

(C) Organic Material

The active ingredients of the fauna ecosystem are the ones that bring about various changes in the environment through their work. Organic elements in the environment are mainly of three types - producer, eater, decomposer.

Producers: Green plants collect carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil in the presence of sunlight and make their main food carbohydrates (sugars) in the process of photosynthesis. At this time the plant releases oxygen as a by-product photosynthesis is the production process of the ecosystem and the producer is the green plant.

Eater: No animal can make food from an inert matter of the environment. They are directly or indirectly dependent on green plants for food. That is why they are called parasitic animals. That is, those who survive by eating produce are eaters. Animals that take food directly from plants are called herbivores. Such as grasshoppers, chickens, cows, goats, deer etc. They are called the first-class eater.

Animals that take the first-class eater as food are called second class eater or secondary eater. They are a kind of carnivorous animals. Frogs, foxes, tigers, etc. are a second-class eater.

Animals that feed on secondary predators are also carnivores. They are said to be the third class or in some cases the highest eater. Such as nake, peacock, tiger etc.

A particular class of eater prefers to eat the flesh or debris of dead animals rather than living animals. Such as crow, vulture, fox, hyena etc. They have been given the name of rubbish eater or Chandra.

Separator: A living substance that decomposes or decomposes complex organic compounds in a dead organism's tissue and absorbs some of them by itself and breaks down the rest of the complex compounds into simple organic compounds and returns them to the environment such as -bacteria, fungi etc. They are also called saprophages because they eat the organic matter of the dead organism. They are also called transformers when the separator is not in the food chain, the food chain is closed. The flow of food energy from the producer to the various organisms is called a food chain most cases, the same eater can be found at different levels in the food chain of the ecosystem. In this way, several food chains come together to form a web. This is called the food web. This is true for both terrestrial and aquatic environments.

There are two types of ecosystems:

A. Terrestrial ecosystem - It can be of different types such as forest ecosystem, desert ecosystem, etc.

B. Aquatic ecosystem - Aquatic ecosystem is again of three types namely: pond ecosystem, river ecosystem and ocean ecosystem.

A large ecosystem is a biome. Small areas are a biome, deserts are a biome, etc. Biomass is a large and distinct ecosystem consisting of plants and animals with the same climate, the same soil, and the same characteristics there are many biomes all over the world. Some of them

Terrestrial Biome- The biomes which are located in the terrestrial part are called terrestrial biomes.

1-Desert Biome

2-Grassland biome

3-Savannah Biome

4-Tundra Biome

5-Forest biome

Aquatic Biome - The biomes of the aquatic environment on Earth are collectively known as aquatic biomes. There are two main types of the aquatic biome. Sweet water and saltwater biome. The aquatic biome is different in fresh water and sea.

Scientists generally classify marine ecosystems into six main categories; However, labels are not always clearly defined, so some sections may overlap or bring envelopes to other sections. Also, within each wide section, small specialized sub-sections may be present, for example, library areas and hydrothermal vents.

The marine environment and the two parts of marine organic communities, each part contains numerous elements. Plants including mainly planktonic algae, benthic seaweed and seed plants, do not carry photosynthetic green pigment, producers ① autotrophs; Bacteria can have photosynthetic: This ingredient mainly consists of six categories. ② Parasitic organisms for consumers, including different types of marine animals. ③ Decomposition, including marine bacteria and fungi marine. Organic debris of biological death and terrestrial input rubbish after decomposition including organic rubbish, as well as the number of dissolved organic matter and its lumps. Such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, carbon-di-oxide and water inorganic substances, recycling material participation 6. Such as temperature, currents and those hydrological physical conditions.

Living environment: The earth is full of a series of oceans. It is the oceans of the earth between the various oceans and some ancillary oceans, but they cannot be separated from each other. Movement of brackish water (ocean currents, tides, etc.), so that each group of oceanic waters mixed and impact. It is different from a terrestrial ecosystem.

Ocean circulation and water mass formation is an important feature of the ocean, it is a big factor in determining the condition of a particular area. Hot and cold water; Mass mixing of water; Vertical distribution and mass movement of water; Resulting in the formation of tropical, almost tropical, temperate, subpolar zone temperature distribution in the respective water ── (sub-polar regions) and the polar regions and other waters increased flow has a significant effect on the formation of water, marine life, distribution and abundance bar of the sun in the air is much smaller than the penetration of water, sunlight enters the sea after rapid decay. Therefore, in the ocean, only to ensure that the highest level sea plants have a strong enough light to ensure that the process of photosynthesis. At certain depths, the intensity of light can only compensate for its respiratory costs by allowing the release of organic matter plant photosynthesis. This depth is called the compensation depth. The water level is called euphotic above the compensation depth. Depth (i.e. compensation depth) depends mainly on the latitude, season and saltwater of euphotic turbid water. Clarity of certain tropical waters, depth up to 200 meters. Comparison of turbid approaching waters, sometimes only a few meters deep.

The poor performance of air and saltwater much greater than the poor thermal conductivity. Thus, the sea temperature changes slightly within the ocean range. The year-round temperature change rate of polar waters of about less than 5 ° C in tropical waters, temperate waters is usually 10 ~ 15 ° C in the warm season between tropical and temperate seas, high temperatures surface, but below water temperature quickly reaches a certain depth, drastically dropping to reach deep hypothermia. The water level is called the thermocline. Because this layer of saltwater can sink and go, the mixed layer on top of the thermocline. The saltwater below the thermocline is very stable.

The terrestrial ecosystems are the places where biotic (living animals) and abiotic (inanimate) elements interact with the air environment over the land. The basic feature is the environment where it develops, which in this case is air and soil as physical support.

The atmospheric environment imposes multiple characteristics on these ecosystems and creates certain forms of adaptation within the organism. The terrestrial environment is said to be directly affected by the effects of climate.

The Tundra ecosystem is known as the tundra ecosystem (polar ecosystem). Polar plains and alpine tundra are integrated into an integrated body by organic communities and their environment. Depending on the distribution area, it is divided into polar (tundra) and alpine ecosystems (tundra) ecosystems. The main features are low temperatures, species-poor, short growing season, low rainfall. Global tundra area of ​​about 8.000.000 square kilometres, about 5.3 per cent of the total land area. Very harsh tundra ecological environment. The climate is characterized by cold, long and cold winters, short and summers cool. Annual rainfall is a lot, but not more often rain, water evaporation is weak, so the air humidity. Tundra soils at a certain depth have permafrost and are widely distributed. Tundra plants have a range of physiological features of cold and drought, many plants grown under cold towel limbs from damage, and some plants grown under the ice. Tundra plants are usually perennials.

Cause and Effect

Ecosystems consist of the animals, plants and environmental conditions of a region. Wetlands, mangroves, rain forests and coral reefs are examples of ecosystems. The ecosystem maintains a very delicate balance. Various human activities threaten to disrupt this balance and destroy the world’s ecosystem.


Pollution is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Pollution can deplete resources and drive away from local animal populations. Important sources of pollution include waste, carbon emissions, oil spills, and pesticides.

Climate Change

Climate change continues to play an important role in the destruction of ecosystems. Global warming has increased temperature, sea level and ocean acidity which disturbs the natural balance of any ecosystem.

Land Clearing

As the human population grows, so does the need for more land development. Many ecosystems are destroyed to clear land for housing development and increasing roads, agricultural use and animal husbandry.

Resource Exploitation

Many ecosystems are rich in natural resources such as nutrient-rich soils, water, trees and fossil fuels. Excessive efforts to extract these resources, such as mining, logging and oil drilling, contribute to the destruction of the ecosystem.

Population Decline

Animals in an ecosystem are important sources of food and population control. The population of many animals is declining due to overfishing and hunting. Animals are often hunted for their valuable skin, plumage, horns and flesh.

Importance of Ecosystem

The elements of the environment are intimately related to each other this complex relationship is created to maintain the balance of the environment. This balance is established in the environment through the activities of a large number of organisms. The extinction of only one particular species in the environment can bring about a catastrophe that is why biodiversity is especially important for sustaining the environment.

Environmental creatures that we once considered unnecessary have evolved and continue to play an important role in preserving the environment. Once upon a time, there were numerous oysters on the Chesapeake coast of the United States. They could purify the whole area in just three days. But now that 99 per cent of that oyster has become extinct, the remaining oysters can no longer purify that water in a year as a result, the water on that coast is gradually becoming muddy and the oxygen level in the water is declining. An adult frog can eat as many insects as its weight in one day. These insects do a lot of damage to our crops but due to the use of various pesticides, the number of frogs is decreasing. Moreover, they also play a major role in pollination Owls, eagles, kites, and hawks are known as predatory species. They control the number of rats that eat rats. If a pair of rat’s breed without hindrance, the number of rats will be 80 per year cultures, kites, crows help to keep nature clean by eating nature's garbage!

That is why no living thing can be said to be unnecessary. When a species becomes extinct from the environment, the stability of the ecosystem is lost therefore, no one can deny the role of biodiversity in maintaining the stability of the ecosystem. And so we have to save all the creatures of nature for our normal life because, without human beings, biodiversity can survive, but without biodiversity, human beings cannot survive.

If make it specific, then it would be:

1. Studying ecology can provide knowledge about the different environments of the world and their biodiversity.

2. The importance and contribution of green plants in any ecosystem are immense because the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere is maintained for the process of photosynthesis.

3. Ecosystems can be used to prevent environmental pollution as well as to preserve the natural environment.

4. Knowledge of plant and animal habitat, protection, soil fertility, the ecosystem is required to survive soil erosion.

5. Maintaining an ideal ecosystem can often protect against droughts and floods.

·         Proper assessment of ecosystem can be done through proper assessment of forest formation and protection, wildlife conservation etc.

·         If the balance of the ecosystem is maintained, the extinction of various plant and animal species is saved.

About the Author: Ms. Farjana Yeasmin Nishita is a Youth Advocate, Research Student, Climate activist and an Eco Club Bangladesh Member (The Earth Needs Love)