Because of its unstable government, Pakistan is already one of the countries most at risk from climate change. Environmental degradation, rising temperatures, water scarcity, and extreme weather occurrences are just a few of the problems that the country is currently experiencing. These problems represent a serious risk to the lives and livelihoods of the country's population as well as to the economy.

Pakistan is the sixth most vulnerable nation to climate change impacts between 2000 and 2019, per the Global Climate Risk Index 2021. Natural calamities such as floods, droughts, and heatwaves have plagued the country over the past two decades, resulting in massive economic losses and untold human suffering. In 2010, for example, floods that affected over 20 million people cost the economy roughly $10 billion (National Disaster Management Authority, 2010).

Changes in the country's weather patterns due to climate change include less precipitation and higher average temperatures. It is predicted that Pakistan's average temperature would continue to rise from where it was a century ago, where it was 0.6 degrees Celsius higher (World Bank, 2021). The agricultural industry, which contributes roughly 19% to GDP and employs over 42% of the labour force, would be severely impacted by the rising temperatures (World Bank, 2021). Reduced crop yields from rising temperatures contribute to increased hunger and poverty.

Water shortage is already a major problem in Pakistan because of the country's physical location and rapid population expansion, but climate change is making the situation even worse. The Indus River is particularly important to Pakistan because it accounts for over 90 percent of the country's fresh water supply. Yet, climate change, deforestation, and inadequate water management methods have put a heavy strain on the country's water supplies. That's why around 22 million Pakistanis can't drink the water they're provided with (UNICEF, 2021).

The climate change problem is made more difficult by Pakistan's political instability. The country's ability to respond to environmental concerns has been hampered by its history of political upheavals, such as coups, assassinations, and violent protests. Weak institutions, a lack of accountability, and a lack of action on policies to lessen the effects of climate change are all direct results of the instability in the political sphere.

In addition, government corruption and favouritism have hampered efforts to allocate resources effectively and implement solutions for dealing with climate change. Examples include insufficient disaster response and increased human suffering due to misappropriation of monies intended for disaster management and climate adaptation.

Furthermore, the lack of coordination between the country's provinces and regions due to political instability has hampered the local implementation of climate measures. Lack of coordination and collaboration on environmental concerns is a result of provincial governments being preoccupied with maintaining their political power rather than finding solutions to these problems.

Pakistan's foreign policy mirrors the domestic political turmoil that has plagued the country for years. Border issues between the country and its neighbour, India, have strained relations between the two nations. The Indus Water Treaty, which seeks to control the distribution of the Indus River's water resources between the two countries, has been stymied by this conflict. Water disputes have arisen as a result of a lack of cooperation on this issue, leading to elevated tensions and adding extra complexity to the country's already severe water scarcity crisis.

In conclusion, the political instability in Pakistan is exacerbated by the country's climatic fragility. The economy, human health, and food security are all seriously threatened by climate change. Ineffective policies and plans to solve these issues and guarantee the country's sustainable growth have not been implemented due to a lack of political stability. Pakistan's government, civic society, and commercial sector must work together to address the country's political instability and climate vulnerability. To effectively execute plans for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, it is crucial to develop the institutional structure, establish accountability, and distribute resources. To better manage water supplies, the government should also endeavour to increase regional cooperation, settle border conflicts, and put treaties like the Indus Water Treaty into force. In addition, it is essential to educate the public and include them in decision-making processes to ensure ownership and longevity of climate policy. Pakistan can only reduce its climate risk and secure its people's future via concerted, community-wide action.