The generation of hazardous waste and reduce the use of processes and chemical substances is studied in green chemistry which is design in that way. This green chemistry deals with hazards and with those that link with global concerns such as climate change, production of energy, presence of safe and sufficient supply of water, production of food and toxic substances found in the environment. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in insulating foams are readily replaced by millions of alternating blowing agents, new sources of energy decrease our dependence on fossils fuels and traditional pesticides are replaced by more selective and less persistent pesticides. The sustainability challenges will be achieved by new advanced technologies that provide us with improved products that depend on responsible way. The basic activities of green chemistry are education, industrial implementation, research, awards and future aspects all are based on it. A set of methodologies, principles and criteria is well study in green chemistry which require the conscious and deliberatively that is the essential element in concept of design. Green chemistry is designed on purpose. This is practically impossible to do this by any chance. The use or generation indicate the need of life cycle deliberation. Green chemistry can used everywhere in the daily life, from feedstock origins to beyond end of useful life. The word hazardous is used widely for including physical like explosion or flammability, toxicological like carcinogenic or mutagenic and globally like ozone depletion or climate change. The 12 principles of Green Chemistry which include design of environmentally products and processes. The Green Chemistry of products and processes are categorized by these 12 principles and have been used as guidelines and design a criterion by scientists. Similar to any multiparameter systems, compromises and balances will be made in the pursuit of optimization depending on the particular application-specific conditions. Over the past ten years, improvements in research, application, education, and outreach have led to the current state of the art in green chemistry.


  1. The best method to treat or clean up the waste is to prevent them from formation.
  2. The artificial method should be designed in a way it utilizes the maximum materials that convert into final products.
  3. The processes planned to use and generate materials that possess a little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.
  4. Chemicals substance should be made to maintain efficacy of function while minimize its toxicity.
  5. The supplementary materials should made unnecessary whenever is possile and use only when these are less harmful.
  6. The impact of energy requirements on the environment and economy should be understood, and they should be kept to a minimum. It is best to use the synthetic approach at room temperature and pressure.
  7. The renewable energy materials should be used than non-renewable materials whenever possible and practically economical.
  8. The derivation of a reaction which is not mandatory should be avoided.
  9. Catalytic agents should prefer on stoichiometric agents.
  10. Chemical substance is made in that way they don’t remain in environment after their use and breakdown in less harmful products.
  11. The real time, in process monitoring and control analytical techniques should be established for preliminary the formation of harmful substances.
  12. Chemical accidents, such as releases, explosions, and fires, should be minimized by selecting the substances and forms used in a chemical process.

The issues of sustainability that green chemistry will face in the future are as diverse as the scientific imagination. It should not come as a surprise that a number of these challenges are being pursued for economic and scientific reasons.

Research Challenges.

There are numerous obstacles in research toward green chemistry principles, and it is impossible to discuss each one in detail. However, a list of some of the difficulties illustrates the current issues and may encourage on additional difficulties that ought to be included:

  • Changes that use energy instead of material.
  • Excellent breakdown of water by visible light.
  • Efficient heat and mass transfer effect by solvent system while catalyzing the reaction and fundamentally helping in separation of product.
  • The creation of a synthetic methodologies "toolbox" that is not only energy efficient but also kind to the environment and human health.
  • Polymers and plastics with additive-free design intended for harmless degradation.
  • Utilizing embedded entropy in material design, recycle or reuse decisions can be made.
  • The advancement of "preventative toxicology," in which chemical product design is continuously induced by advancing knowledge of biological and environmental mechanisms of action.
  • Production of more energy-efficient photovoltaic cells that use less energy.
  • Creation of non-combustible, low-material-intensive energy sources.
  • High-volume, value-added consumption or fixation of CO2 and other greenhouse gases.
  • Changes saving delicate usefulness without the utilization of safeguarding gatherings. Creation of materials and surfaces that are long-lasting and do not require cleaning or coatings.

Implementation Challenges.

It is not certain that environmentally friendly technologies will be implemented on an industrial scale if they are discovered at the research stage. The adoption of more recent pollution-prevention technologies is hampered by a number of obstacles. The following factors may make it easier to adopt environmentally friendly procedures:

  • Regulations that are flexible.
  • Tax breaks for using technologies that are cleaner.
  • Programs of research to make it easier for government, business, and academic institutions to share technology.
  • Patent life extensions for process optimization that is cleaner.

Education Challenges.

The philosophy and methods of green chemistry can be taught to students of all levels. To effectively incorporate green chemistry into their teaching and research, educators require the appropriate resources, training, and tools. Significant stages to be taken to propel green science inside the educational plan incorporate the accompanying:

  • Systematic recognition of hazard and toxicity as a designable physical and chemical property of molecular structure.
  • Implementation of real-world laboratory experiments to demonstrate green chemistry concepts.
  • The fundamentals of chemical toxicology and the hazard's molecular foundation are discussed.
  • Green chemistry topics included on professional certification examinations.
  • Resources for teachers who want to incorporate green chemistry into their current classes
  • Legislators should be educated about the advantages of green chemistry.

About the Authors:

Hamza Afzal is a postgraduate student of organic chemistry. His particular interest is in green chemistry and sustainability.

Sunil Tahir is a postgraduate scholar in Environmental science as well as a passionate activist of biodiversity conservation.