As we know that that the average temperature of earth is increasing, which lead to global warming. This is mainly due to the heat trapping gases produced by the anthropogenic and natural activities to the atmosphere.

Before the industrial revolution, green house gases mainly the carbon dioxide was very low. This trend was continued till the 20th century further till mid-20th century emissions were still relatively low. In 1950 global emissions were about 6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide. By 1990 this figure quadrupled reaching up to 22 billion tonnes.  We continued to grow rapidly and produced emissions at the same pattern, currently we are emitting 34 billion tonnes each year of carbon dioxide. Picture shows the trend of carbon emission increase with time.

From the trend shown above it can be clearly seen that carbon dioxide has direct relation with fossil fuel usage.  As we already know that it is life-threatening gas as it is present in abundance and ability to remain in atmosphere for thousand of years.

Carbon dioxide emissions comes from both man made and natural resources, one of the man-made processes is urbanization. This is a dynamic process which changes the rural areas to urban ones by expanding the built environment vertically as well as horizontally. Further defining the built environment as manmade surroundings which provides all facilities to human activities and also become the part of social and economic development of a country. So, it will be considered as the major role in contributing carbon dioxide in global warming.

The main sources of carbon dioxide emission are from energy consumption, which is needed for the manufacturing process also in transportation sector. Building sector also plays a vital role is production of carbon dioxide by consuming nonrenewable resources. It is estimated that 39% of annual global carbon dioxide is contributed by building and infrastructure. Sector wise carbon dioxide emissions is mentioned in figure.

Due to usage of non-sustainable resources and carbon emission are produced more in the environment and continuously depleting it.  The energy harnessed from fossil fuel is also non sustainable, which is mostly used in major activities of urbanization. Sustainable energy resource only contributes 6% of the carbon dioxide whereas fossil fuel contributes 40% of carbon dioxide to the global greenhouse gas emissions. Keeping in mind the increase use of the fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide, methods have been devised to reduce its impacts including carbon foot printing mainly for high density urban areas and industries. This solution has reduced the impact but the challenge yet needs to be solved.

 Carbon dioxide directly produced from burning natural gas, light fuel oil and applications of electricity. Worldwide indirect carbon dioxide emissions accounts 85% of carbon dioxide emitted, whereas 14% from direct emissions. Globally, the indirect CO2 emission accounts for 85% of the total CO2 emitted, while only 14% is from direct emissions.

By 2030 it is estimated that 27% of energy would be obtained from sustainable sources, whereas energy efficiency productivity will increase by 27%. There is still room for improvement to reduce the non-renewable resources and switch renewables ones as they are less polluting and more efficient. Need to switch from conventional pattern to sustainable pattern. Need to conduct life cycle assessment of the whole process and access the pattern for consumption of resources and production of green house gases. In this way, we can reduce the impact on our environment and give a better future to our coming generations. 


About the Author: Meraj Ahsan Qureshi is a young, enthusiastic EHS official dedicated to create awareness and to create a change is society regarding environment and social issues.