Environmental pollution is basically the pollution of our ambient environment (which includes physical and biological components) in which we are living. It can be caused by both natural and anthropogenic activities, but the major concern arises due to anthropogenic activities. These activities pollute air, water, land etc. to a major extent, that for now it has to be taken into consideration.

Air Pollution

Air pollution is the contamination of the ambient air in which we breathe by different chemical physical and biological factors that changes the natural characteristics of atmosphere. The source of these pollutants are industries, vehicular emissions etc.  According to the world health reports there are six major air pollutants as.

  • CO2
  • NOX
  • SOX
  • VOC
  • Tropospheric ozone
  • PM

Air pollution and Smog

One of the major issues that is caused now a days due to these air pollutants is SMOG. The term “SMOG” was used in 1900 which describes it as a mixture of fog and smoke. Smog is of two types:

Photochemical smog: whish is caused due the reaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides released from automobiles in the presence of sunlight and a brownish haze is appeared

London smog: which is released by the burning of Sulphur containing coal

It reduced visibility, plant damage, irritation of the eyes, and respiratory distress. One of the cities of Pakistan, Lahore is highly effected due to smog and major health arises due to it.

Water Pollution

Water pollution is basically the contamination of water bodies by the release of substances due to human activities. The waste that can be discharged in water bodies to pollute them are:

  • Domestic waste
  • Toxic waste
  • Oil waste

Ocean Pollution And Sea Turtles

Sea turtles, which are called the lawnmowers of water. Pollutants like PCB’s, petroleum products, agricultural runoff etc. when discharged into water bodies and reaches to the sea lead to immunosuppression resulting in disease and death. 

A disease called FP (Fibro papillomatosis) is a threat to sea turtle populations worldwide. Also known as "FP", this disease causes cauliflower-shaped tumors on external soft parts and internal organs of a sea turtle. The exact cause of FP is still unknown; however, researchers believe there is a link to ocean pollution. External FP tumors can create drag and slow sea turtles down making them more vulnerable to predation and collisions with boats.Toxic metals may concentrate in the liver and kidneys of sea turtles. Toxins like mercury also pose a threat to human health.

Chronic exposure to pollutants makes sea turtles susceptible to disease and death. Chronically ill turtles are also more vulnerable to predation and collisions with boats.

Organisms that ingest these chemicals may suffer from depressed immune systems, illness, disease, and impaired reproduction. Researchers have found PCB's in sea turtle eggs.

Land Pollution

The degradation of the earth’s land by the contaminants or pollutants that are released on it . this is occurred when trash, contaminants, chemicals are openly exposed to the land .the causes of land pollution are :

  • Mining activities
  • Agricultural activities
  • Nuclear activities
  • urbanization

Contamination of groundwater, loss of topsoil, water nutrient enrichment and increased risk of wildfires are effects of land pollution.

Land Pollution And Polluted Soil

Soil pollution is one of the parts of land pollution. Due to land pollution, there is polluted soil present and soil will become infertile which is not used for agricultural activities. When agricultural activities are not done properly then there is a food shortage which can directly related to the health of people.

About the Author: Ramsha Nadeem is a student of Environmental Sciences at Government College Women University, Sialkot.