Biodiversity is well explained in the Holy Quran:

Allah has created every living creature from water. And of them, are those that move on their bellies, and of them are those that walk on two legs, and of them are those that walk on two legs, and of them are those that walk on four. Allah creates what he wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.  ~ Al-Noor 24-25

Biodiversity or we say biological diversity means the number or variety of species present or originate in a specific geographical location.

Pakistan is a beautiful country having different types of geographical areas ranging from deserts to snowcapped peaks. In these areas, a huge number of plant and animal species exist, which maintain the beauty of Pakistan and make it an attractive destination for tourists.

Pakistan has a unique geographical location due to which it faces four seasons round the year, which become favorable for most of the animal and plant species to survive and grow. Migratory birds are also seen in many areas of Pakistan which mainly migrate from Siberia and some other parts of Russia.

The Northern areas of Pakistan host most of the richest biodiversity of the country that why it is also called the Jewel of Pakistan. 7% of overall plant species of the country are endemic, whereas 200 species of mammals are available, 666 species of avifauna including migratory and endangered both present in Pakistan. 500+ species of fish and reptiles and fauna were observed in the country.

The increase in population, lack of resources, and decreased economic growth areconstantly putting pressure on over-exploiting natural resources which ultimately impact the biodiversity of the country. In addition to this incorrect economic policy created inequalities among the resource use and available facilities which forced the poor to depend upon natural resources.  

The resources which were impacted most are forests which covered 5.7% of the total covered area. Trees shrubs are disappearing in huge amounts due to the over exploitation of these resources the dependent fauna of the area is also getting extinct they were mostly dependent on this. Deforestation is causing grave effects mostly in Baluchistan juniper forest and Indus riverine area and some mangroves.

The rangelands of Pakistan are being affected by the overgrazing of the livestock. It is estimated that livestock increasing at the rate of 20% per 7 years, for this carrying capacity is insufficient, due to this overgrazing occur at wide area causing loss of topsoil and nutrients further causing desertification.

One of the problems is waterlogging and salinity, which is mainly caused by continuous surface irrigation due to which water table rise due to which agricultural land is lost. The main affected area of Pakistan due to waterlogging and salinity area Sindh and southern Punjab.

Unfettered hunting has a long history in Pakistan which causes a huge loss of fauna in many areas, Main species like Marco Polo sheep goitered gazelle are on verge of extinction. Houbara bustard is continuously being hunted at large parties by the gulf despite its prohibited hunting.

Currently, the country has 14 national parks and 101 wildlife sanctuaries along with 96 game reserves. Its’ time that we have to take action to stop overexploitation of natural resources implement the legalization in its true sense and sustainably use the resources and share the resources equally. Protected areas should be developed and maintained so that endangered species may be survived and increase their population

About the Author: Meraj Ahsan Qureshi is a young motivated, environmental, health, and safety officer. He is also a social activist, who is determined to educate and change society through awareness and encourage others to be a part of the change.