Energy sector is an important sector that is major contributor to many major environmental issues like global warming, air pollution, water pollution, solid waste disposal and climate change. Environment issues related to energy sector that hugely change the earth life because we depend on fossil fuel. Globally, this fact accepted and switch to alternative source. Now, in this current era developed countries tried to switch energy sector with renewable energies. Now most modern renewable energy is hydrogen. Hydrogen is most plentiful element in the universe and in earth it is in compound form like water, hydrocarbon. Hydrogen is pure and clean energy that has high energy content that is why it is used to replace the fossil fuel to reduce GHGs emissions that is culprit of major problems.

Hydrogen is an energy carrier that must be produce from different source that contains hydrogen like water, fossil fuel etc. There are different methods used to produce hydrogen that are:

  • Electrolytic process is specially used to separate the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen. This process undertaken through electrolyzer.
  • Thermal processes that is high temperature process in which steam are involve producing hydrogen. Thermal process is used for hydrocarbon fuel.
  • Biological processes as name indicate in this process biological things like bacteria and microbes are used to produce hydrogen.
  • Solar-driven process that process used light as source to separate hydrogen.

When hydrogen separated from source then it is used in different application for energy purpose. Firstly, hydrogen liquid used by NASA in 1950 as a rocket fuel. Hydrogen fuel cell was firstly used to create electricity in spacecraft by NASA.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Hydrogen fuel cell is a technology that used to produce electricity in which electrochemical process take place, it is work as battery. In this fuel cell, hydrogen carries negative charge and oxygen atom carries positive charge combine and then product is electricity, water, and small quantity of heat. This process has zero emission carbon and other notorious gases. The hydrogen fuel cell is used to generate electricity for building and industries to overcome GHGs. In United States, about 250 MW (megawatt) electricity produce from 161 fuel cell that is operating at different 108 sites. In allover world many countries used hydrogen for electricity and make planning to expand this energy. Hydrogen energy is most sustainable, advance, and modern energy that can be used at any time, at any location. And also, can be store and used later for different purposes. But unlike other renewable energy like solar and wind this is not happened.

Hydrogen Used In Transportation Sector

Hydrogen fuel cell used in cars and buses by replacing the engine that run on gasoline. Hydrogen fuel cell has great potential and according to some report fuel cell is 2 to 3 time more efficient than common engine. International Energy Agency reported in 2019 that U.S has 8,000 and China has 6,000 fuel cell vehicles on roads. And Japan has 3,600 vehicle has but country has announced that at the end of 2030, 811,000 hydrogen cars will be on road. Now, many countries included in list of producing hydrogen vehicles like Canada, France, Germany, and Australia etc.  Now, surprisingly it is noted that Japan continuously grows and has more hydrogen fuel station than other countries. Toyota and Honda are leading manufacturing companies of hydrogen cars.

Hydrogen fuel cell technology is very expensive that’s why it growth rate slow that is overwhelming reason. And it is difficult for developing countries. Although it is sustainable energy and meet the Goal 7 of Sustainable Development Goal.

About the Author: Urooj Fatima has done graduation in Environmental Science. And now she is involved in writing green blogs about environment, climate, and sustainable development.