Water scarcity is not a menace in some countries, it is serious global issue and it will get worse in future. Because only 3% consumable water available in overall world that is reducing with the increase demand and human being created difficulties. In simple term, Water scarcity mean the huge gap between water demand and water supply that do not meet the need of that area.

Some recent studies reported that in worldwide approximately about 1.1 billion people have no access to water and 2.7 billion people face water scarce issue for about 30 days of the year. 2.4 billion Populations exposed to different water-borne disease due to improper sanitation. Many causality was reported due to water pollution. International Monetary Fund (IMF) stated that Pakistan ranked 3rd in the list of severe water scarce countries. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resource (PCRWR) in 2018 clearly stated by the end of 2025 there would be very low or no clean water existing in Pakistan. It is projected that that per capita water availability in 2020 shrink to 866m3 that move toward severity and will further decrease to 660m3 by 2025 and 575 cubic feet by the end of 2050.

Due to water pollution in Pakistan, only 20% safe and clean drinking water available. The left over 80% available water has been contaminated by inadequate sanitation (total coliform, fecal, E .coli) agricultural waste (fertilizer, pesticide) and industrial waste. These water pollution source not only scarce the surface water but also groundwater resource. Most of Pakistan’s industries directly emit the hazardous metals, oil and dangerous chemicals into nearby water bodies. From agriculture fields, chemical pesticide and fertilizer also runoff into rivers and lakes that deteriorate the quality of surface water and that chemicals leach down in aquifer that contaminate the water. It is reported in different research papers ground water also polluted due to contamination of poisonous metal arsenic. It is also pose risk who drink ground water. Over consumption and contamination is main cause of water scarcity. Because Pakistan ranked 3rd that used groundwater globally.

These sources not only decreased the quantity of water but also effect the human health badly. It had reported that due to water pollution is blamable for 80% of all infection and cause many deaths about 30%. The quality of water pipes used to supply water is bad that contain single E .coli bacteria. The main water-borne diseases in Pakistan are diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, typhoid, hepatitis, bones and teeth disease.

To combat the water scarcity it is dire need of time to focus and move on to solution.

*      Making effective policies to conserve water and improvement in water quantity and proper implementation in fields

*      Making strict laws and regulation to conserve water quality

*      Wastewater treatment plant is necessary for industries and disinfection treatment at household level

*      Focus on other methods like rainwater harvesting and recharge of aquifers

*      Improvement in existing infrastructures and building of new dam sites in appropriate location

*      Restoration of water bodies like lakes and wetlands

*      Conservation of glaciers is also main point because due to global warming snow melt faster. In Pakistan, it is major source of freshwater

*      Improvement in water supply structures

*      Promote research in field of water management

*      Reforestation can play very important role in declining of water scarcity. It is helpful in controlling flood, pollution and temperature

There are many other major cause of water scarcity in Pakistan; increase population in urban areas, mismanagement of water in agriculture field and Climate Change. Water scarcity and water pollution is also major reason that decease vast amount of water. We must switch off these sources that contribute to the water pollution. Government need to understand the severity of issue and adopt the sustainable solution to manage the water resources.

About the Author: Urooj Fatima is a graduate of Environmental Sciences from GC Women University, Sialkot.